The section contains video materials presenting the most common medical imaging exams.

Below is the voice -over commentary for individual films.

 

RADIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION – RADIOGRAPHY

 *Radiography (or X-ray picture) is a type of radiological imaging technique which applies X-radiation. As a result of radiography, we receive images called radiographs. This imaging techniques is designed to identify abnormalities or lesions in the human body.  Radiography is performed using X-ray machine.

*Radiography differs significantly from fluoroscopy imaging. When an X-ray picture (radiography) is taken, radiation is turned on for a fraction of a second. During fluoroscopy, radiation is on for a longer duration, which allows the examiner to view the patient’s body, as in a film in real-time. This means that, compared to the latter procedure, radiography is linked with a lower exposition to X-radiation.

*To have radiography performed, a patient must present a referral issued by an authorised physician. A correctly written and legible referral makes it easier to carry out the examination and to report the results.

*X-radiation is a form of ionising radiation which adversely affects the human body. Due to this, X-ray imaging techniques should not be applied to pregnant women, while other patients should only be subjected to such examinations when it is necessary in the diagnostic or treatment process.   

*To get a good quality X-ray images, the patient should follow the instructions of the radiographer taking the X- Ray picture. The patient must not move, and if necessary, should hold his/her breath.

*Advanced digital equipment displays the images on the screen of the computer monitor immediately after the examination has been performed.

*Subsequently the X-ray image is transferred to a CD.

*Interpretation and reporting of the radiography images are performed by a radiologist.

*The patient receives the report of the X-ray image, and the CD.

 

RADIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION – FLUOROSCOPY

* Fluoroscopy is a type of radiological imaging technique which applies X-radiation. It is designed to identify abnormalities or lesions in the human body. Fluoroscopy imaging is performed using a specialised X-ray equipment.

* Fluoroscopy imaging differs significantly from radiography (or X-ray picture). When an X-ray picture is taken, radiation is turned on for a fraction of a second. During fluoroscopy, radiation is on for a longer duration, which allows the examiner to view the patient’s body, as in a film in real-time. This means that fluoroscopy imaging is linked with a much higher exposition to X-radiation which depends on the duration of the procedure.

* To have a fluoroscopy examination performed, a patient must present a referral issued by an authorised physician. A correctly written and legible referral makes it easier to carry out the examination and to report the results.

*X-radiation is a form of ionising radiation which adversely affects the human body. Due to this, X-ray imaging techniques should not be applied to pregnant women, while other patients should only be subjected to such examinations when it is necessary in the diagnostic or treatment process. 

*The patient must prepare for the examination – detailed information is usually provided by the referring doctor or it can be obtained at the radiological laboratory where the exam is to be performed.

*Fluoroscopy imaging is always performed by a radiologist. The method is most commonly used to examine the gastrointestinal tract.

*For examinations of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum or small intestine, the patients swallow a liquid contrast agent.

*For examinations of the large intestine, the contrast agent is administered rectally.   

*Fluoroscopy procedure may be recorded and viewed a number of times. As a result, the images can be accurately analysed.

* Interpretation and reporting of the fluoroscopy are performed by a radiologist.

* The fluoroscopy images are transferred to a CD.

* The patient receives the report of the fluoroscopy examination, and the CD.

 

RADIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION – X-RAY MAMMOGRAPHY  

* X-ray mammography is a type of radiological imaging technique which applies X-radiation. It is designed to identify abnormalities or lesions in the human breast. The examination is performed using a mammography machine, which is specialised X-ray equipment.

* To have a mammography examination performed, a patient must present a referral issued by an authorised physician. Such document is not required for screening examinations.

*The referral documents should be issued correctly and clearly, to ensure that the examination is carried out properly, and the result is reported adequately.

*X-radiation is a form of ionising radiation which adversely affects the human body. Due to this, mammography should not be performed in pregnant women, while menstruating women should only be subjected to such examinations during the first ten days of the menstrual cycle.

* To make sure that the mammography examination is carried out correctly, patient should follow the instructions of the radiographer performing the exam. Most important for the procedure is the proper positioning against the X-ray plate and compression of the breast.

*Examination is performed with the mammography machine in four settings – two for each breast.

* Advanced digital equipment displays the picture on the screen of the computer monitor immediately after the examination has been completed.

*If needed, additional examinations may be performed.

*In tomosynthesis technique the examination is performed by the mammography machine with moving X-ray source. The result is visualised as cross–sectional images of the breast, or the so-called slices. Owing to this, it is easier to identify any minor abnormalities.

*Another special technique involves intravenous administration of a contrast agent, which highlights any areas of increased blood supply, typical for cancerous lumps.

*In each case, the mammogram images are transferred to a CD.

* Interpretation and reporting of the mammography images (mammograms) are performed by a radiologist.

* The patient receives the report of the mammography examination, and the CD.

 

RADIOLOGICAL EXAMINATION – COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

*Computed tomography is an advanced radiology technique enabling assessment with a device called CT scanner which emits X-rays.

* To have a computed tomography examination performed, a patient must present a referral issued by an authorised physician.  A correctly written and legible referral makes it easier to carry out the examination properly and to report the results.

*X-radiation is a form of ionising radiation which adversely affects the human body; in fact, the dose is much higher during a computed tomography examination compared to a regular X-ray exam procedure (radiography). Due to this, computed tomography should not be applied to pregnant women, while other patients should only be subjected to such examinations when it is necessary in the diagnostic or treatment process.

* To make sure that the examination is carried out correctly, patient should follow the instructions of the personnel performing the exam. Most importantly, during the procedure patient should lie down, stay very still, and hold his/her breath when asked to do so.   

*During the examination the patient lies on a special table which moves slowly. During this time an X-ray lamp rotates around the table, emitting X-rays. A panel with many rows of detectors is coupled with the lamp.

*This way the images of the patient’s body are produced in a form of cross-sectional slices. Imaging data acquired this way may be used to create two- and three-dimensional reconstructions. Images may also be created using virtual endoscopy technique, to show the inside of the patient’s body, as if a speculum or endoscope were used.

*For some examinations, a contrast agent must be administered intravenously using an automatic syringe injector.

*In the case of an examination requiring a contrast agent, the patient must refrain from eating for at least a few hours before the procedure; they must also present valid results of creatinine test.

*All the images from the computed tomography examination are transferred to a CD.

*A computed tomography examination is performed by a team consisting of radiographer, a nurse and a radiologist. The latter supervises the examination by defining the method to be used, and modifying the procedure as required by the situation. Radiologists always take the final decisions, so they must be present during the examination.

* Interpretation and reporting of the computed tomography images are performed by a radiologist.

* The patient receives the report of the computed tomography examination, and the CD.

 

ULTRASOUND EXAMINATION (SONOGRAPHY)

*Sonography is an advanced technique of medical imaging performed with the use of ultrasound machine. 

*Sonography uses ultrasounds and does not apply the potentially hazardous ionising radiation. 

* To have a sonography examination performed, a patient should present a referral issued by an authorised physician. A correctly written and legible referral makes it easier to carry out the examination properly and to report the results.

*Some sonography examinations should be preceded with adequate preparations, e.g. the patient must refrain from eating for a specific duration of time. Detailed information is usually provided by the referring physician, or it can be obtained at the laboratory where the exam is to be performed.

*During the procedure the doctor applies a layer of gel onto the patient’s skin and then uses a hand-held probe, or a transducer, to examine the area. The device sends ultrasound waves and then collects the sounds that bounce back. The resulting image of the human body allows to visualise abnormalities within the specific organs, and – what is important – this happens in real time.

*If needed, a dedicated printer makes copies documenting the abnormalities.

*Sonography is always performed by a doctor. This may be a radiologist or an adequately trained medical professional of another specialisation.

* After completing the examination, the doctor prepares a report.

* The patient receives the report of the examination, and the prints.

 

MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

*Magnetic resonance imaging is an advanced diagnostic technique used in medicine. The examinations are performed using a magnetic resonance scanner. This imaging technique does not apply the potentially hazardous ionising radiation.  

*A very strong, static magnetic field is produced in each magnetic resonance scanner. Due to this, patients must not enter a room with any items made of ferromagnetic metals or objects which can be demagnetised. These include watches and magnetic cards. For the same reason the examination cannot be performed if the patient in their body has any objects made of ferromagnetic metals, e.g. screws, plates, clips, stents, prosthetics or pacemakers. Before the examination the patients must fill in a special form in which they exclude such elements in the body

*During the procedure, the patient’s body is exposed to the operation of a strong, static magnetic field as well as impulses of radio-frequency electromagnetic waves. These induce the phenomenon of magnetic resonance whereby hydrogen nuclei within the patient’s body emit signals which are received and transformed into images.

* To have a magnetic resonance examination performed, a patient should present a referral issued by an authorised physician. A correctly written and legible referral makes it easier to carry out the examination properly and to describe the results.

*During the examination the patient is lying on a special table which is placed inside the scanner.

*The patient receives earplugs, as a protection against the noise produced by the scanner.

* To make sure that the examination is carried out correctly, the patient should follow the instructions of the personnel performing the exam. Most importantly, during the procedure the patient should lie down, stay very still, and hold his/her breath when asked to do so.

*Obtained as a result of the examination, the cross-sectional images of the patient’s body or the so-called slices, correspond to the selected planes – transverse, sagittal or coronal. The imaging data acquired this way may be used to create three-dimensional reconstructions.

* For some examinations, a contrast agent must be administered intravenously using an automatic syringe injector. In the case of an examination requiring a contrast agent, the patient must refrain from eating for at least a few hours before the procedure; they must also present valid results of creatinine test.

* All the images from the magnetic resonance examination are transferred to a CD.

*A magnetic resonance examination is performed by a team consisting of a radiographer, a nurse and a radiologist. The latter supervises the examination by specifying the method to be used, and modifying the procedure as required by the situation. Radiologists always take the final decisions, so they must be present during the examination.

*Interpretation and reporting of the images are performed by a radiologist.

* The patient receives the report of the examination, and the CD.